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  Study: Vaporized Cannabis Augments The Analgesic Effects Of Opiates In Human Subjects

    OnlinePot’s Review Of The Vapor Tower Vaporizer    

 Smokeless Cannabis Vaporizer Delivery Systems Found Safer 
      And More Effective, Research Study Proves

    How To Build Your Own Medical
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      Water Pipe and Vaporizer Study

    How To Make A Marijuana Vaporizer




                In A Vap Vaporizers


 Vaporizer Study Of Volcano Vaporizer

           April 24 2006  
        Report #1 Of 2
  Researchers of the University of Leiden Germany investigated the   performance of the vaporizer Volcano in terms of reproducible   delivery of THC. They summarized: "It was found that an   average of about 54% of loaded THC was delivered into the   balloon of the vaporizer, in a reproducible manner. When the   vaporizer was used for clinical administration of inhaled THC, it   was found that on average 35% of inhaled THC was directly   exhaled again. Our results show that with the Volcano a safe and   effective cannabinoid delivery system seems to be available to   patients. The final pulmonal uptake of THC is comparable to the   smoking of cannabis, while avoiding the respiratory   disadvantages of smoking." (Source: Hazekamp A, et al. J   Pharm Sci 2006 Apr 24; 


Report #2 Of 2

Harmful toxins in marijuana smoke can be effectively avoided by a=20
vaporization device, according to a new study by California NORML and
MAPS=20 (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies) with support
from a=20 grant from the MPP (Marijuana Policy Project).

The study, conducted by Chemic Labs in Canton, Mass., tested vapors
from=20 cannabis heated in an herbal vaporizer known as the Volcano=AE
(manufactured==20 by Storz & Bickel GmbH&Co. KG, Tuttlingen, Germany;=20 http://www.storz-bickel.com) and compared them to smoke produced by=20 combusted marijuana. The Volcano=AE is designed to heat material to=20 temperatures of 130=B0 to 230=B0 C (266=B0 to 446=B0 F) where medically acti= ve=20 vapors are produced, but below the threshold of combustion where smoke is=20 formed.

The vapors from the Volcano=AE were found to consist overwhelmingly of
THC,=20 the major active component in marijuana, whereas the combusted smoke=20 contained over 100 other chemicals, including several polynuclear
aromatic=20 hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogenic toxins that are common in tobacco=20 smoke.  The respiratory hazards of marijuana and tobacco smoke are due  to=20 toxic byproducts of combustion, not the active ingredients in the
plant,=20 known as cannabinoids.

The study suggests that medical marijuana patients can avoid the=20
respiratory hazards of smoking by using a vaporizer.  In its 1999
report on=20 medical marijuana, the Institute of Medicine recommended against long-term=20 use of smoked marijuana because of the health risks of smoking. However,=20 the IOM failed to take account of vaporizers.


Previous studies have found that vaporizers can reduce harmful toxins
in=20 cannabis smoke. However, this is the first study to analyze the gas
phase=20 of the vapor for a wide range of toxins. A previous NORML/MAPS study=20 conducted by Chemic Labs found that a vaporizer known as the M-1
Volatizer= =AE=20 (http:// www.volatizer.com) completely eliminated three specific  toxins=20 (naphthalene, benzene and toluene) in. the solid phase of the vapor  (D.=20 Gieringer, "Cannabis Vaporization: A Promising Strategy for Smoke Harm=20 Reduction," Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics Vol. 1#3-4: 153-70  (2001);=20
http://www.canorml.org/healthfacts/vaporizerstudy1.html ).

The new study used a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) to
examine=20 the gas components of the vapor.  .The analysis showed that the
Volcano=AE=20 vapor was remarkably clean, consisting 95% of THC with traces of cannabinol=20 (CBN), another cannabinoid.  The remaining 5% consisted of small  amounts of=20 three other components: one suspected cannabinoid relative, one suspected=20 PAH, and caryophyllene, a fragrant oil in cannabis and other plants.  In=20 contrast over 111 different components appeared in the gas of the combusted=20 smoke, including a half dozen known PAHs. Non-cannabinoids accounted for as=20 much as 88% of the total gas content of the smoke.

The study used standard NIDA cannabis with 4% THC content. A
quantitative=20 analysis found that the Volcano=AE delivered 46% of the THC into  vapor=20 following three 45-second exposures of the sample to the heat.  This=20 compares favorably with the typical efficiency of marijuana cigarettes
as=20 observed in other studies, which depending on conditions can fall below
25%=20 due to loss of THC in sidestream smoke. An important feature of the=20 Volcano=AE is that it uses a balloon to capture the vapor, thereby
avoiding=20 leakage to the air.  It is possible that higher THC efficiencies could
have=20 been reached with the Volcano=AE by stirring the sample around and
exposing=20 it to more heat.

The combusted sample achieved a relatively high THC efficiency of 78%
upon=20 complete combustion. The high efficiency seems due to the fact that
the=20 sample was completely consumed by combustion, and that smoke leakage was=20 effectively prevented by the laboratory setup.  Similar conditions do  not=20 obtain under normal circumstances when a marijuana cigarette is smoked and=20 much of the THC is lost to the air or left in the unburned "roach."

Two other cannabinoids , cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN),
were=20 detected in the NIDA cannabis in trace amounts of 0.1%. Both the
Volcano=AE=20 and combustion delivered an apparent increase in CBD and CBN, but  the=20 variance of the data was too high to reach statistically significant=20 conclusions.

Sponsors believe that the study results lend support for wider use
of=20 vaporizers by medical marijuana patients and researchers.  At present,
the=20 only FDA-approved method for administering marijuana to human
research=20 subjects is via smoking NIDA cigarettes.  NORML and MAPS are
supporting=20 efforts to have vaporizers approved by the FDA.  As a first step in this=20 effort, Dr. Donald Abrams of the University of California, San
Francisco,=20 has submitted a grant proposal to the California Center for Medical=20 Cannabis Research in San Diego to test the Volcano=AE in human subjects.  If==20 the protocol is funded and the Volcano=AE approved by the FDA for human=20 research, it will be the first human study using a vaporizer.  If the FDA=20 requests additional laboratory data about the Volcano@, additional funding=20
may be necessary.

For more information on vaporizers, see=20

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