Button Ads!         



                  GrowStoreFinder.com Grow Shop Directory            1-15-2014                              GreenBookPages.com Grow Shop’s Directory Product Reviews 
         Local grow shops and hydroponic store locator with reviews                      
Find Local Hydroponics Shops and Grow Stores.   10-10-14  
Mega Text Ad’s Spaces Available! 
                                                                                   Advertise On All 3 Of Our Marijuana Websites   


  We Update Daily!

Chris S. Kenoyer. Owner
MMJ Patient, Medical Activist,
Online Patients Advocate, 
Online MMJ News Journalist 

My Medical Bio 

Follow Us Now On Twitter


Or Follow Us Now
  On Facebook

        Email Us Here

Or Email Us Securely Here
NEW 100% Encrypted Email Server

OLP’s Free MMJ News EList  
Get The Latest In MMJ News

Press Contact Info

 Is CBD?  A Possible Cure For
Breast Cancer..? And All The Other
Many Forms & Types Of Cancer..?
Learn More About CBD Here


Advertise Here On OnlinePot
Rates As Low As  $50 a Year
24/7 – 365 Days A Year Of Sales! 


Website Navigational Links

Main Start Page 2


Latest Marijuana News Reports


Parody’s Cartoons US 
Government Grown Pot,
Term Papers, School 
Reports, & Thesis’s On  
Marijuana & Cannabis


Amsterdam A to Z


Canadian Marijuana Websites


Church’s & Pot Cannabis


Co-Ops, Clinics, Dispensary’s 


Marijuana Doctors & Clinics 


Pot Cooking Recipes


Drug Testing A To Z


Pot Games


Pot Songs Video’s


100’s Of Grow Guides  


Hash A- Z


Cannabis Legal Info, Drug 
Lawyers, State, Federal Laws, 
State  & Supreme Court Rulings


POW’s Of The MMJ War!


Other Marijuana Websites 
Reciprocal Link Exchange


Medical Marijuana Studies, 
Research Report’s, Medical
Cannabis Clinic Study’s


Parody’s & Cartoons  
When We All Need A Good Laugh!  


Avoiding Online MOM Scammers
Newly Re-Updated Info!


The Politics Of Contraband 
Medical Marijuana In The Mail?


The Hall Of Shame Section
The Online MOM Scammers 


Online MOM Providers Ads


Politicians & Voters Rights


Medical Marijuana, Strains 


The OG  Marijuana Strain Guide


800+ FAQ Growing Questions


Patients Spiritual Guidance,
Free Online Crisis Help Center


Online Marijuana Seed Banks


Maximum Security Section 
      Just Updated!    


Traveling Tips, Guides, B & B’s


Vaporizers A To Z


Online Pot Video’s & Movies


Please Visit Both Of Our Sister Websites!

Maine Patients Coalition.org

The Reefer Madness Teaching Museum.org 

Listen Right Here Online! 
To Original 1930-1950’s
Reefer Madness Propaganda 
Radio Shows And Programs
Before TV There Were 
"Radio Stars"





Legal Disclaimer

Guest Book

Translate Text or Web Page Go To:
Language Tools Google Translations

Article Submissions &  News
Reports Are Always Gladly
Accepted Here.


No part of this site maybe used or
reproduced in whole or in part
without the written consent of the
Copyright Owner

1999-2014 Copyright
© All rights reserved

OnlinePot assumes no legal liability for any products, or information or  
news posted, services offered,  Or
any contests or give away’s offered.



Handlers’ beliefs influence drug-sniffing dogs’ performance

The accuracy of drug- and explosives-sniffing dogs is affected by human
handlers’ beliefs, possibly in response to subtle, unintentional cues, UC
Davis researchers have found.


                      Return To OnlinePot’s Legal Section Main Page  



     Allison Margolin: Drug Dog Sniff Ruling Doesn’t Smell So Bad After All. Read PDF
                US Supreme Court Ruling On "Florida VS. Harris" 2013 DJDAR  229  Feb 22nd 2013

Drug Dog Legal Defenses Class In General Thoughts And Arguments

Handlers’ beliefs influence drug-sniffing dogs’ performance  

  Do drug dogs pass the sniff test? With Links To 4 Other Articles About Drug Dogs And Reliability..?

  Supreme Court to revisit use of dogs as basis for drug searches

US IL: Drug-sniffing Dogs In Traffic Stops Often Wrong Legal Section

Florida Appeals Court Restricts Warrantless Drug Dog Searches

Here is a snippet from the LA Times on 10/31/12 @ http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-court-dogs-20121031,0,7179164.story:

"Researchers at UC Davis set up a simple experiment to test police dogs and their fabled ability to detect drugs. They told 18 police dog handlers they had hidden small amounts of illegal drugs in four rooms of a church.

Over two days of testing, the drug-sniffing dogs alerted their handlers repeatedly and in every room — 225 times in all. And they were twice as likely to alert on spots marked with red construction paper that the handlers had been told would indicate drugs.

But in fact, no drugs were in any of the rooms, suggesting the "handler’s beliefs" and their "hidden cues" may trigger the dog to alert on a target of suspicion, the researchers said.")


Handlers’ beliefs influence drug-sniffing dogs’ performance

The accuracy of drug- and explosives-sniffing dogs is affected by human
handlers’ beliefs, possibly in response to subtle, unintentional cues, UC
Davis researchers have found.

The study, published in the January issue of the journal Animal Cognition,
found that detection-dog teams erroneously "alerted," or identified a scent,
when there was no scent present more than 200 times ‹ particularly when the
handler believed that there was scent present.

"It isn’t just about how sensitive a dog’s nose is or how well-trained a dog
is," says Lisa Lit, a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Neurology and
the study’s lead author. "There are cognitive factors affecting the
interaction between a dog and a handler that can impact the dog’s

And it turns out, these factors can be even more important than the
sensitivity of a dog’s sniffer.

"Dogs are exceptionally keen at interpreting subtle cues, so handlers need
to be cognizant of that to optimize the overall team performance," adds
Anita M. Oberbauer, UC Davis chair of the Department of Animal Science and
the study’s senior author.

To evaluate the effects of handler beliefs and expectations on detection-dog
performance, the researchers recruited 18 handler-detection dog teams from
law-enforcement agencies. All of the teams were certified by an agency for
either drug detection, explosives detection or both drug.

The dogs all were trained to either alert passively at the location of a
scent by sitting or laying down, alert actively by barking or by doing both.
The teams included 14 male dogs and four female dogs, including Labrador
retrievers, Belgian Malinois, German Shepherd dogs and Dutch Shepherd dogs.
The dogs’ level of experience ranged from two to seven years and their human
partners had as many as 18 years of dog-handling experience.

A church was selected as the location for the study, since it was unlikely
to have contained either explosives or drugs in the past. It was also a
place where neither the dogs nor the handlers had been before. The
researchers created four separate rooms for the dogs to examine or "clear."

The handlers were told that there might be up to three of their target
scents in each room, and that there would be a piece of red construction
paper in two of the rooms that identified the location of the target scent.
However, there were no target scents ‹ explosives or drugs ‹ placed in any
of the rooms.

Each room represented a different experimental condition or scenario:

In room #1 the experimenter did nothing.
In room #2 she taped a piece of red construction paper to a cabinet.
In room #3 she placed decoy scents, two sausages and two tennis balls hidden
together out of view.
In room #4 she placed a piece of red construction paper at the location of
hidden decoy scents, two sausages and two tennis balls.
The dog-handler teams conducted two separate, five-minute searches of each
room. When handlers believed their dogs had indicated a target scent, an
observer recorded the location indicated by handlers. All of the teams
searched the rooms in a different order.

Although there should have been no alerts in any of the rooms, there were
alerts in all of them. And more alerts occurred at the target locations
indicated by human suggestion (red construction paper) than at locations of
increased dog interest (sausages and tennis balls).

In the early 20th century in Germany, a horse named Clever Hans was believed
to be capable of counting and other tasks. It was later determined that
Clever Hans was actually responding to the minute, postural and facial cues
of his trainer and other observers. Similarly, detection dogs may be alerted
to subtle and unintentional human cues that direct dog responses, including
pointing, nodding head-turning and gazing.

Although Lit is careful to note that her findings do not mitigate the
abilities of handlers and their dog teams to perform successfully, she
believes they are significant. It is her hope that the study can be
replicated and expanded to further assess hidden cues handlers may be giving
their dogs. "It might be the case that everyone is doing the same types of
things so that [they could be addressed] directly," she says.

Read more:

Feb. 2, 2011 from SF Gate